Cardiac alternans is classified as follows:

  • Due to alternans of hemodynamic variables
  • Due to alternans of contractile state
  • Interrelation between mechanical and action potential alternans
  • Alternans of action potential shape and duration
  • Electrocardiographic manifestation
  • Alternans of repolarization and refractoriness
  • Alternans of conduction
  • In association with myocardial ischemia
  • In association with cardiac motion